Match these words from Sweet tooth (Ch10) to the pictures below
a pearl necklace
1. Adjectives describe nouns. Adjectives can be made from past participles and ‘ing’ participles.
2. An example of a past participle as an adjective
Here is an example of a past participle as an adjective in a sentence: ‘The broken window was replaced quickly‘. In this sentence, the adjective is ‘broken‘ because it describes the window. The sentence could be written differently using an adjective clause (which is in brackets):
‘The window (that was broken by someone) was replaced quickly‘.
As you can see, this form of adjective can often be written as a passive phrase.
3. An example of an ‘ing’ participle as an adjective
Here is an example of an ‘ing’ participle as an adjective in a sentence: ‘The falling snow was gathering quickly on the ground‘. In this sentence, the adjective is ‘falling‘ because it describes the snow. the sentence could be written differently using an adjective clause (which is in brackets):
‘The snow (that was falling at that time) was gathering quickly on the ground.’
As you can see, this form of adjective can often be written as an active phrase.
4. Look at this extract from Sweet tooth (Ch9) and see if you can find the past participle adjective:
Wendy found a space and parked the car opposite the lane. Shoppers and tired staff hurried past. The town centre was emptying, fast. But one kid, in a red hat and gloves, stood motionless.
5. Look at these sentences and decide which form of the participle should be used as an adjective
a. Wendy didn’t like Tracey’s (irritating/irritated) games. (= games that were irritating)
b. Wendy liked Mrs Morton’s (smiled/smiling) face.
c. Mr Links appeared suddenly with a (covering/covered) face.
d. Mr Links had a (shining/shone) head.
e. The mouthwash had a (disgusted/disgusting) taste.
f. Mr Shaw, the chemist, gave Wendy a (puzzled/puzzling) stare. He had no idea what she was talking about.
g. The (fascinated/fascinating) boy watched the train in the toy shop go around the track until his mother pulled him away.
1. Look again at Sweet tooth (Ch9) and decide if these sentences are true or false
a. When Wendy arrived in the town, it was getting busier and busier.
b. The child in front of the toy shop was there by himself.
c. Links left the surgery with his assistant.
d. Links and his assistant walked to a nearby train station.
e. While Wendy was following Links, it began to snow.
f. The gates through which Links’s car went had to be opened and closed manually.
g. Wendy was too late to go through the gates.
ADVERBS AND ADJECTIVES
1. What adverbs and adjectives do
In general, adverbs describe verbs and adjectives describe nouns. For example, in this sentence: ‘He spoke quickly‘, the adverb is ‘quickly‘ and it describes the verb ‘spoke’. In this sentence: ‘He is a fast speaker‘, the adjective is ‘fast‘ and it describes the noun ‘speaker‘.
2. Look at the sentence below. Is the word ‘fast’ acting as an adjective or adverb?
‘Cheetahs can run fast‘
If you thought it was an adverb, you would be correct! Often adverbs end in ‘ly’, but not always.
3. Look at the sentences below. Is the word ‘hard‘ acting as an adjective or adverb?
a. ‘She’s a hard worker so she usually does well at school‘
b. ‘She studied hard so she got a good grade‘
4. Look at this extract from Sweet tooth (Ch8). Is ‘carefully‘ an adverb or an adjective? What is it describing?
Wendy’s dad sighed. The last time Wendy borrowed it she put a dent in one of the doors. ‘Okay, but drive carefully,’ he said, handing her the keys from his pocket.
5. Complete the sentences by choosing the correct word
a. The students felt (happy/happily) when their exam finished.
b. Because she spoke so (loud/loudly) when she asked for the bill, everyone turned and looked at her.
c. She turned (sudden/suddenly) and (accidental/accidentally) hit him with her umbrella.
d. He was speaking too (soft/softly) so the students (polite/politely) asked him to raise his voice.
e. Parking a large car is sometimes (difficult/difficultly) unless it has technology to help you.
f. Learning to drive a car is (easy/easily) for most people if they have sufficient time to practise and an instructor who is (patient/patiently).
1. Look again at Sweet tooth (Ch8) and complete the following sentences by choosing the correct word in brackets
a. Wendy dressed ________ her father arrived home. (before/after)
b. Wendy’s father was worried about giving Wendy his ________ because she damaged it the last time. (car/mobile phone)
c. Wendy only had ________ to get into town before Links’s surgery closed. (an hour/half an hour)
d. Wendy’s aunt went to Links and he took out ________ of her teeth. (four/five)
e. Wendy’s father felt ________ because he had been to see Links too and hadn’t told Wendy. (ashamed/angry)
Read Sweet tooth (Ch7) again. Are the following sentences true or false?
1. Wendy slept without waking up during the night.
2. Wendy went to the living room to get a painkiller.
3. Wendy took two painkillers.
4. Wendy returned to her bedroom after she took the medicine.
5. Wendy’s father went to work after Wendy went downstairs.
6. Tracy called Wendy on her mobile.
7. Mr Shaw gave Wendy a business card for Mr Links
8. Wendy went to see Mr Shaw because she needed more painkillers.
1. Types and purpose
There are many ways to make an adjective clause. One of them is to use ‘that’ as a connector. Here is an example: ‘The book that I am reading now is about Edinburgh.’ The reason that we use an adjective clause is to give more information about a noun. In the example, the noun that we want to describe more is ‘The book’. The adjective clause helps to identify which book (among many) is being spoken about. In other words, it answers the question ‘which book?’.
If the adjective clause in this example is taken out, the sentence still makes sense: ‘The book (that I am reading now) is about Edinburgh.’ In other words, the main verb of the sentence is ‘is’.
2. Look at this extract from Sweet tooth (Ch7) and see if you can find the adjective clause in it. (It is slightly difficult because ‘that’ has been removed)
‘Can I help you?’ asked Mr Shaw, the chemist. He was standing behind the till in a long white coat.
‘Yes, Mr Shaw,’ said Wendy, ‘you can.’ She threw the little business card onto the counter. ‘He’s the reason I’m here.’
Shaw picked up the card. He frowned, uncomprehending.
3. Complete the following sentences using an appropriate noun
a. The ______ that she bought accelerates from 0-60 in 6 seconds.
b. If you have finished reading it, can you return the ______ that I lent you?
c. Where is the ______ that I bought for the concert next week?
d. I loved the ______ that we had at that restaurant last night, but I didn’t like the main course.
4. Complete the following sentence using an appropriate verb in the adjective clause
a. What did you think of the DVD that I ______ you?
b. Fortunately, the coffee that I ______ on my shirt wasn’t boiling hot!
c. The homework that their teacher ______ them wasn’t difficult.
d. The recipe for the bread that I ______ to make says I have to use rye flour.
5. Look again at #4 above. What are the main verbs of these sentences?
Look again at Sweet tooth (Ch6). Are the following statements true or false?
1. The strange noise was caused by Wendy.
2. Pliers were used to take out Wendy’s tooth.
3. Wendy smiled at Links.
4. There was pink liquid in a cup next to Wendy.
5. The pink liquid was for drinking.
6. Links wanted to see Wendy in a month’s time.
7. Links found another tooth that he wanted to take out.
8. Ms Simm had gone when Wendy went into the reception area.
THE USE OF COULD
1. Look at this extract from Sweet tooth (Ch6)
She could hear Links breathing.
2. How to use ‘could’.
One way to use ‘could’ is to talk about ability in the past; for example, ‘He could run fast when he was young.’ Another way to use ‘could’ is to talk about a possibility; for example ‘Take an umbrella – it could rain later.’ Look at the extract from Sweet tooth above. How is ‘could’ being used in it?
3. Look at these sentences. Is could being used to talk about past ability or possibility?
a. I couldn’t find his home number so I called him on his mobile.
b. He isn’t answering his mobile. Could he be asleep?
c. He could be asleep so wait and call him later.
d. When I spoke to him, the line wasn’t clear and I couldn’t hear what he said.
e. Could you understand anything that he said?
f. I could only understand every second word!
Look at chapters 4 and 5 of Sweet tooth. Complete these sentences using either ‘before’ or ‘after’
1. ______ Wendy reached the top of the stairs, she listened but heard no sound.
2. Wendy wondered if she had made a mistake with the date of the appointment ______ she opened the dentist’s door.
3. ______ a loud buzzer sounded on the receptionist’s desk, the woman told Wendy to go in and see the dentist.
4. Wendy felt a little nervous ______ she went in to see the dentist.
5. Wendy thought the woman looked like a raven ______ she went in to see the dentist.
6. ______ the woman reassured Wendy, Wendy noticed that the woman had sharp teeth.
7. ______ the dentist appeared, Wendy thought about leaving.
8. The dentist pulled over a large light ______ he began to examine Wendy’s teeth.
9. ______ the dentist said ‘Streptococcus mutans’, he explained that it meant tooth decay.
10. _______ the dentist used the needle, he told Wendy to sit and wait.